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Plugins & JVM Mods

Mindustry supports loading jar files with Java bytecode on desktop & Android. These function similarly to JS mods, and must supply a single main class to instantiate when the mod is created.

Theoretically, all JVM languages should be supported.

Jar/JVM mods use the same mod.hjson meta file that standard mods do, with one addition: The fully qualified main class can be specified with main: "mypackage.MyMod". This class should extend mindustry.mod.Mod.

If a main class is not specified, it defaults to modnameinlowercase.ModName + "Mod".

A simple mod.hjson for a Java mod could look like this:

name: "Nothing"
author: "Yourself"
main: "nothing.NothingMod"
description: "..."
version: "99.99"

See the example Java mod repo or the example Kotlin mod repo for more instructions.


Plugins are Java mods that are intended to be run on servers only. Usually, these add new commands or new gamemodes. All plugin main classes should extend mindustry.mod.Plugin. This makes them implicitly hidden - clients will not need to download the plugin to join the server. They are server-side only. To install a plugin, place the JAR in <server directory>/config/mods/.

Plugins name their meta file plugin.[h]json. The file structure is identical to that of other Java mods - see above for details.

You can see an example plugin here. For a more practical example that can be used on real servers, see this repo.


Unlike JS or JSON mods, JAR mods need to be compiled. This means that they cannot be imported directly from Github - instead, Github Releases are used.

When a user tries to install a JAR mod, Mindustry will check the latest (and only the latest) Github release for .jar artifacts. When the first artifact is found, it is downloaded to the client. Note that pre-releases are ignored.

I recommend using Github Actions (or any other CI) to automatically build and upload jar artifacts to new releases.


Unless otherwise noted, no Mindustry code is thread-safe. Performing any actions (e.g. sending packets, changing tiles) from a thread other than the main one will result in random crashes or network errors. To run something on the main thread, use -> { /* code */ }).

Capabilities & Security

As jar mods are loaded directly through a URLClassLoader with no sandboxing, they do not have any security limitations. This means:

  • All Java APIs can be accessed.
  • Reflection can be used to access private/hidden properties.
  • Mods have full access to the client's computer, opening the door to potentially malicious actions.
  • Mods can change game files or rewrite core bytecode.

Thus, you should never import jar mods from untrusted sources. Now, you may be wondering: Why aren't jar mods sandboxed? Isn't that a massive security risk?

The answer is: Yes, it is. However, there are no good alternatives. Even if I implemented a SecurityManager to limit mod capabilities, it wouldn't help - Java is inherently insecure, and any reasonably-"secure" sandbox implementation (if one even exists) would require disabling reflection in mods, which is unacceptable.

As a point of comparison, Forge (a popular Java mod loader for Minecraft) doesn't sandbox mods either.